In some families, large stones, a hammer or spatula that have been heated over scorching coals can be used to compress the breast tissue. Other families may opt to use an elastic belt or binder to press the breasts so as to prevent them from growing.
Breast flattening usually starts with the first signs of puberty, which can be as young as nine years old and is usually carried out by female relatives.
It should also be acknowledged that some adolescent girls and boys may choose to bind their breast using constrictive material due to gender transformation or identity, and this may also cause health problems.
Breast Flattening can happen anywhere in the world, the map below represents the countries where research has been carried out. Just because a country is not highlighted, doesn’t mean it does not happen, it means there is no research in that area.